Sometimes is very difficult to choose between wheels and tracks when you buy a snow vehicle because each system provides certain features and performances. More than that, each system has its strengths and weaknesses.
We are going to give you a series of lists with advantages and disadvantages for both wheels and continuous tracks. With all these positions in mind, you have to choose the best system for your needs.
Choosing the best system depends on several factors including here the traction, ground pressure, suspension, and steering.
The traction is greater if you use tracks instead wheels, but for the best results this depends on the terrain.
If you want a less ground pressure, you have to choose the tracks. The tracks have a lower ground pressure than wheels and are more suited to soft surfaces. For example less ground pressure will results in less sinking in the snow. For soft surfaces larger tires can be used, but this has its limits and cannot work in all conditions – for example on snow.
A suspension for a tracked vehicle is more complicated than for a wheeled vehicle. The suspension system has an important role related to traction by keeping the tracks or wheels on the terrain as foten as possible.
The wheels have a significant advantage in steering compared to tracks, and this can be translated into a good maneuverability for the wheels.
Wheeled UTV’s vs. tracked UTV’s is a well-known subject under debate for a long period of time. In the following, you can find the advantages and disadvantages of both vehicle propulsion: wheels and continuous tracks.
Advantages and disadvantages using wheels
The wheels are everywhere, from quads to the popular Polaris RZR, and is one of the main components that facilitates the movement by reducing the friction. Most UTVs are designed with 4 wheels. This is the most common structure because it allows it to do the following, to move quickly, easily controlled, or turn around in small places.
In general, wheels are used for:
- low production costs – this is the case if we compare the prices for wheels and tracks;
- speed – compared with tracks, the wheels need a lower amount of torque to move on from stationary;
- maneuverability – the wheels provide high maneuverability compared with continuous tracks.
- lightweight – continuous tracks are much heavier than wheels, and this is the main reason why wheels are used especially in cases when the mass of the robot is a critical property – for example, space exploration missions;
- simplicity – a wheel has less moving parts, which means that there are fewer components that can get damaged;
- materials – several materials can be used to build wheels that meet environmental conditions;
Disadvantages using wheels
Using the wheel, is not always the best case. There are some situations where the wheels are not the best choice.
In general, wheels are not used when:
- drive over obstacles – depending on the terrain, a robot needs to pass small or large obstacles. For a wheel to get over a vertical obstacle, it has to be at least twice as tall as the vertical obstacle;
- snow – driving in snow has long been the job of a snowmobile, or a large snowcat. These are both tracked systems. Wheels tend to dig in and get stuck because of the lack of surface area.
Advantages and disadvantages using continuous tracks
The continuous band of treads driven by a series of wheels is used when the wheels cannot be used. In this area can be added a variety of scenarios, including the move on uneven terrain or when it’s needed high traction.
In general, continuous tracks are used for:
- power efficiency – compared with wheels, continuous tracks have high performance and optimized traction system, which is a plus in power delivery efficiency;
- traction – the traction is high even on slippery surfaces like snow or wet concrete;
- moving on rough terrain – using continuous tracks, a UTV can operate on rough terrain where wheel would get stuck. Also, the continuous band of treads can ascend and descend stairs, surmount obstacles, or cross ditches;
- aesthetics – the tracks look more aggressive than wheels;
- ground impact – a UTV that moves on rubber tracks has a lower PSI on the ground. That means a less impact on the ground, especially when the UTV is heavy;
- weight growth potential – a UTV with continuous tracks has a weight spread over the entire surface of the track. This is one of the reasons that a giant excavator uses tracks, to support the heavy load;
Disadvantages using continuous tracks
In general, continuous tracks are not used in cases of:
- lower speed – due to more friction and a complex mechanical system, the UTVS with continuous tracks have lower speed compared with UTVs on wheels;
So…Who is the Winner?
Well it’s hard to declare a winner in this situation, since each system serves a different purpose. BUT if we consider the current weather conditions outside our window as we are writing this article (which is a lot snow) I suppose the tracked systems win. I mean really, would you rather drive up the mountains on a wheeled open cab UTV and get stuck, or jump in a heated LiteTrax and smoothly cruise through those big flakes falling down?
I’ll take the LiteTrax 🙂